The fort of Gavi is a historic fortress, attested since 973, purely defensive, built by the Genoese on an old medieval castle. Over the centuries the castle took on the appearance of a mighty fortress, the first radical interventions were carried out in 1540 by Giovanni Maria Olgiati, military engineer at the service of the Republic of Genoa, who designed and completely rebuilt the walls, ramparts and building new consolidating the original structure. In the seventeenth century the fort was further expanded with the participation of the Dominican friar Vincenzo da Fiorenzuola, born Gaspare Maculani. These, known for being the inquisitor at the trial of Galileo Galilei, was not only a religious, a great expert of military architecture. Work on the transformation of the building into a great fortress were made between 1626 and 1629, but other interventions were followed up until the dawn of the nineteenth century. On the east side was built the "reduced" Monte Moro, attached to the fort by a tunnel; inside were built housing for soldiers and officers, tanks, powder magazines, guardhouses and parade grounds, all with the help of the most famous military engineers of the time, by Stefano Scaniglia Domenico Ursuline, from Peter to Morettini Pierre De Cotte. In 1859 the ancient Genoese fortress was disarmed and deprived of its historical identity to be transformed into a civil penitentiary; during the First World War it became a military prison. In the interlude between two wars, in some embankments of the fortress they were planted experimental vines from Antifilosserico Consortium. With the Second World War the fort again became a place of detention; in 1946 it was delivered to the Superintendence for Architectural Heritage of Piedmont, which since 1978 has begun a steady and gradual restoration and preservation of this rare example of military architecture.